This Research Topic is part of a series with: Emerging Pneumonia in Children, Volume I
Acute lower respiratory infection is the leading cause of child death worldwide, accounting for 20% of mortality in children less than 5 years old, especially in developing countries, with an estimated four million deaths annually. Current strategies to reduce pneumonia deaths are through early detection and appropriate treatment of pneumonia. However, the clinical manifestations of childhood pneumonia depend on the pathogen, the host factor, and the severity of illness. There is no single sign or symptom being pathognomonic specifically for pneumonia in children. The symptoms and signs of pneumonia may be subtle, especially in infants and young children. According to clinical characteristics, pneumonia can be classified into bacterial pneumonia, atypical bacterial pneumonia, or viral pneumonia. Sometimes these features frequently overlap and cannot be used reliably to differentiate the pathogens. In addition, mixed pathogens, combine with bacterial and viral infection, may reach up to 50 percent in childhood pneumonia. It increases the difficulty of diagnosis.
A chest X-ray is frequently used as a tool for diagnosis and evaluation. While. radiographic findings may lag behind clinical manifestation and sometimes being a poor indicator of the etiologic diagnosis. On the other hand, radiographic interpretation may be influenced by the clinical information as there is often variation in intra-observer and inter-observer agreement. In developed countries, routine immunization with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has successfully prevented the invasive pneumococcal disease in vaccinated children and provided community immunity for people not vaccinated. However, due to economic reasons, routine pneumococcal conjugate vaccination is still lacking in many countries. The rise of other existing and novel pathogens has accounted for another issue. Better diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are still in urgent demand for children. The diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines also need to be updated with new evidence.
The main aim of this Research Topic is to consider the available data concerning the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pneumonia in children, highlighting new development about novel pathogen, updated treatment, vaccination, and assistance of artificial intelligence. We welcome any interesting and important issues about pneumonia in children, including review and original articles.
• Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and etiology
• Novel or better diagnosis
• Treatment guideline
• Artificial Intelligence assistance
• Emerging pathogens (old and novel)
• Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): in children